The political map of Earth has changed greatly through the centuries since the dawn of human spaceflight.
Without a doubt, the single greatest impact on the modern map was The Great Contraction of the late 21st century, an event that impacted civilization as profoundly as the Black Death rocked medieval Europe.
By 2472 of the Common Era, five powers exist with substantial capability to project their influence beyond Earth herself. Three - the Eastern Federation, State, and Union - are the traditional powers.
Yet the traditional powers are far from Earth's only powers; the Oceanic League spearheaded much of the settlement of the outer worlds beyond Saturn, leaving it many friends and a tapestry of cultural ties that hold strong even centuries later. The Southern Bloc, tired of playing a subordinate role in system politics, is rising fast both commercially and militarily, and increasingly is challenging the traditional powers.